At the height of its strength and confidence the army of British India was a unique organisation, whose officers and other ranks - all volunteers - were bound together by extraordinary ésprit de corps. Already the largest volunteer army in the world in 1914, by 1918 it had quadrupled in strength to nearly 600,000 men. Indian divisions served with distinction on the Western Front and, particularly, in the Middle East. After interwar campaigns on the North-West Frontier, in the Second World War Indian divisions made a major contribution to the British effort in North Africa, Italy and Burma. With independence and partition the old army was divided between the new states of India and Pakistan, retaining its discipline and professional pride in the most difficult circumstances.